Culture Of Bhojpuri Region:Rohtas, Kaimur, Buxar , Bhojpur,Saran, Siwan, Gopalganj, East Champaran and West Champaran

Districts of Rohtas, Kaimur, Buxar and Bhojpur to the south of the Ganges; and, Saran, Siwan, Gopalganj, East Champaran and West Champaran to the north of the Ganges are extent of the Bhojpuri culture.


The vernacular current over the whole area is the dialect of Bihari Hindi called Bhojpuri. It is an offshoot of Eastern Hindi spoken in the eastern districts of Uttar Pradesh. It takes the name after the Bhojpur district.


Food in this region is almost the same as in the other districts of Bihar. Rice, anta, gram, sattu, millet, vegetables, lentils, fish, meat and egg are the common items. The cooking media are ghee, mustard oil, and the various edible oils, which now include different brands of hydrogenated oils. As ghee is becoming more expensive, hydrogenated oils are more in use. The vegetables are ordinarily potato, gourds, cucurbit, brinjal, etc., and the other seasonal vegetables. Rice in different forms and chapattis (bread) of anta, dal and vegetables are the usual daily food for the average man. Various kinds of savoury food, preparations of meat, fish and eggs, sweets, curd and other milk products are usually meant for those who can afford. More of sattu is consumed in this area. Litti, a sort of cake with sattu inside is a palatable indigenous item of food in these districts.


The better class of Hindus ordinarily wear dhoti fastened round the loins and falling to the knee; and over this a long robe (chapkan) fastened on the right shoulder. On the head is placed a light skull-cap (topi), and the feet are encased in loose country made shoes, with the toes curled upwards; sometimes, also a white scarf (chadar) is thrown over the shoulders. The material of the dress differs with the weather. In the hot weather, the robe and cap will be of muslin or some light cloth; but in the cold season, stouter cloth is used for the robe, and the cap is made of velvet or some other warm material.

On State occasions, Hindus and Muslims dress alike. The headdress now consists of flat turban (pugri) or of one twisted round the head (muretha). Loose drawers take the place of the dhoti; and outside, a little above the waist, is twisted a long piece of cloth (kamarband). Shoes of English shape often take the place of the country slipper. The kamarband is frequently dispensed with; and in that case a loose open robe (choga), reaching nearly to the feet, is worn or sometimes a shorter but tighter coat, called an 'eba'. A Hindu shopkeeper will wear a short jacket (mirzai) instead of chapkan, but in other respects his dress, though of cheaper materials, will resemble the one just described.

A cultivator wears only a dhoti and a sort of plaid (gamchha), which is thrown sometimes round the body, sometimes over the shoulders, and often on the head with one end hanging down the back. A corner of this cloth is often knotted, and used as a sort of purse for keeping spare cash, receipts, etc. The better class of cultivators wears the cap and shoes, but the majorities do without them. Inside the house, the poorer classes never wear shoes, but shopkeepers often use wooden sandals. The richer classes wear shawls both when at home and abroad; but the middle classes who cannot afford shawls, envelope themselves in a short of padded cloak (dulai).

In the past decades Dhoti and Kurta were common dress of the men, but owing to the high prices of dhotis men-folk started using trousers and lungis and this has stuck. Use of half pant and shirts is also more in vogue now for school-going children. Use of turban or cloth cap for the head is distinctly on the decline. Sari is the chief dress of ladies. The old suthna (ladies pajama) for Muslim ladies is becoming obsolete. Burka is still in use among the higher and the middle class Muslim ladies who want to observe purdah. However, educated Muslim ladies are slowly discarding it. The ladies in the urban areas who wear sari use an under-wear known as petticoat. Blouse or a loose upper-wear known as jhula and some sort of brassieres are also used. Orthodox middle class ladies when going out usually use a chadar.

There are special dresses for the occasion of marriage. A Hindu bridegroom goes either in dhoti, kurta and chadar or in jama and jora (achkan and churidar pajama). However, these are also slowly being replaced with Coat & Pant. Muslim bridegroom invariably uses jama and jora. A Hindu bride has to wear from the day of lagan (few days before marriage) to the date of marriage only one piece of un-bordered cloth (of the size of sari) coloured in turmeric. On the marriage day the garments brought by the bridegroom are given to her to wear.

A Muslim bride during the period of manja (a few days before marriage) puts on an un-bordered sari coloured in pink or yellow. On the marriage day she changes the sari and puts on a shahana (a combination of pajama, kurta and orhni) brought by the bridegroom.

At the time of mourning a Hindu uses an un-bordered dhoti, chadar and an uttari (a piece of cloth round the neck) from the date of agni-sanskar to the date of shraddha, that is, from the date of cremation to the tenth day of cremation. The ornaments usually worn by ladies in rural and urban areas are for the hair of the head, ears, neck, arms, wrists, waist and the feet. The usual ornaments used by poor villager are karas, bangles, lor, hansuli, necklace or munga, baghrakha, karanz, kathula, bajar and batoo. Rich women of urban are also use similar ornaments but of precious metals.

Religious Beliefs


The religious beliefs of the Hindus have undergone a great change with the lapse of time. The Hindu religious faith is a mixture of animism, polytheism and monism. Monism is an abstruse theory of philosophy and is adhered to by a few highly intellectual people. The followers of Dayanand Saraswati or the Arya Samaj are believers of monism. 'The Brahmos' believe in monotheism of the Upanishad and discard image-worship. The common people follow polytheism and animism. The Hindu religion is still pre-eminently ritualistic and the worship of gods is looked upon as the first duty of man. Oblation, prayer and the recitation of the sacred hymns are also observed. The Hindus worship a legion of gods and goddesses, but the primary gods and goddesses are Vishnu and his consort Lakshmi, Shiva and his consort Bhawani or Parvati, Saraswati, Ganesh, Durga and Mahavir. There are a large number of temples, old and new, scattered throughout the region.


Monism is the cardinal principle of Islam and a devout Muslim has no other god but Allah, and has his Rasul or Messenger, the prophet Mohammad. But a sort of saint worship or Pir worship has become a common feature. A Pir's tomb often becomes a plat of pilgrimage.



One important samskar is the marriage rite, which is performed with some pomp. The Hindu Dharma Shastra has classified eight types of marriages. An astrologer who predicts whether the stars of both are in harmony generally settles marriage after examination of horoscopes of both the bridegroom and the bride. But this practice is slowly falling into disuse among the enlightened people. Cases of love marriage are becoming common. Inter-caste or even inter-racial marriages are becoming common. Civil marriages by registration have not yet become popular. The guardians of the parties usually settle marriage but the consent of the bridegroom or the bride is not ignored. An auspicious day according to the Hindu calendar is fixed for performing marriage. On the stipulated day the bridegroom with a party consisting of relatives and friends visit the house of the father of the bride. At the auspicious time a priest performs the marriage rite and hymns are uttered to solemnize the marriage. Saptapadigaman or going round the sacred fire is held to be essential. After the performance of some rites, the ritual of Kanyadan or giving away of the bride is done by the guardian of the bride, which is followed by Kanya-panigrahana or accepting of the bride by the bridegroom on the utterance of solemn pledges. The rite of marriage usually comes to a close after applying vermilion or Sindurdan by the bridegroom on the forehead of the bride.


The marriage customs of the Muslims are more simplified than the Hindus. Two male witnesses hear the testimony to the celebration of the marriage after taking the consent of bride. After her consent they declare her intention to the public and then the sermon of the Khutba-e-nikah is recited. The bride's father or wali gives away the bride in marriage to the bridegroom. On the eve of the departure of the bride to the house of the bridegroom, the jalwa ceremony is performed. They are made to see each other's face in a mirror and to read the Koran together.

Folk Dances

There are some popular folk dance forms called Pamariya, Videshia, Kathputli, Launda and Dhobia in the Bhojpuri region. Launda, Pamaria and Dhobia dances are popular in the Bhojpuri speaking areas of Bihar. Only males perform Launda and Pamaria nach / boys dressed in woman costumes and guise and are a must on the marriage and other auspicious occasions. Dhobia dance is a popular community dance form performed on marriages and other auspicious occasions in the washer men's society of Bhojpur. Jharni dance is especially a Muslim community folk dance. Sad songs and depiction of grief and sorrow is the specialty of this dance form, which is performed on the eve of Muharram.


Songs and music have a great fascination for the rural people. The lyrics of ancient saints, bhajans or devotional songs accompanied with musical instruments like Jhal, Dholak and Harmonium add to the attraction. Apart from the devotional songs and music there is craze for particular types of songs in tune with seasons. In July-August (Shravan) month, Kajri and Birha songs are much in vogue. Jatsari songs are sung by the women folk while grinding the wheel to break the grains. Sohar and Jhumar songs are very popular. Sohar is to mark the birth of a child while Jhumar is a synthesis of music and dance. The women labourers while transplanting paddy seedlings sing pastoral songs. At Holi time songs with an erotic slant are common. Many of the sons are rich in thought and are great specimens of a delicate web of words. Dancing by boys in the garb of females (Launda) is very common in the villages. This is a must in most Barat parties even if there are no dancing girls. Chaita, which is accompanied by song and dances by such boys, attract large crowds at nights in summer months.

Domestic Arts & crafts

Sasaram ( Rohtas):Lacquered pottery.
Saran :Basket making,Tikuli works.
Siwan and Gopalganj :Pottery.

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